Montag, 27. November 2023, 18:30 - 20:00 iCal

The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict: What's Next?

The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict After Baku’s Takeover of Nagorno-Karabakh: What’s Next?

Sky Lounge
Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Wien

Diskussion, Round Table

The International Institute for Peace (IIP) in cooperation with the Vienna Institute for international Economic Studies (WIIW) and with the support of the City of Vienna and the Representation of the European Commission in Austria cordially invite you to the following event:

The Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict After Baku’s Takeover of Nagorno-Karabakh: What’s Next?


• ZAUR SHIRIYEV, Analyst for South Caucasus at the International Crisis Group

• ANNA HESS SARGSYAN, Head of Conflict Resolution at the Austrian Center for Peace

• THOMAS DE WAAL, journalist and writer, Senior Fellow with Carnegie Europe

• STEFAN MEISTER (tbc), Head of the Center for Order and Governance in Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia at the German Council on Foreign Relations


• STEPHANIE FENKART, Director at the IIP


The conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has persisted since the final days of the Soviet Union. Some would even argue that it began much earlier, at the beginning of the 20th century or even in the 19th century. The most recent escalation in this decades-long cycle of conflict and violence occurred in September 2023, when Azerbaijan took full control over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh, choosing to restore its territorial integrity by force and thus ignoring the previous years of negotiations with Armenia. An autonomous oblast, predominantly populated by ethnic Armenians but administratively part of Soviet Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence in 1991, which resulted in a full-scale war between Armenia and Azerbaijan in the early 1990s. Armenia came out victorious, taking control not only of Nagorno-Karabakh, but also adjacent seven regions of Azerbaijan. As a result, NK declared itself an unrecognized de facto Republic, that ceased to exist with the September 2023 Azeri offensive and forced displacement.

Azerbaijan’s takeover of Nagorno-Karabakh in September appears to have ostensibly resolved the protracted conflict by force. Upon closer examination, however, the region is as far from peace as ever. Almost the entire population of Nagorno-Karabakh has fled to Armenia, fearing further violence by Azerbaijani forces. The previous negotiation efforts facilitated by the EU and the US, which aimed to find non-military solutions to the two countries’ disputes, have been rendered effectively irrelevant. Moreover, the threat of further military clashes or an outright attack by Azerbaijan on Armenian territory remains real. These dramatic developments are happening concurrently with attempts by the regional and extra-regional powers to make the South Caucasus a transit hub for transportation and goods, as the necessity of such alternative route has grown in demand after Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine. At the moment, this transit potential serves as the only hope for any future pan-regional cooperation.

What does the new reality in Nagorno-Karabakh mean for the future of the conflict and the South Caucasus region? Is further military escalation still possible? What role do external powers, such as Russia, Turkey, and the EU, play in this conflict and the South Caucasus region more broadly? What is the situation of Karabakh Armenians today? Why are the violent means of taking control over Nagorno-Karabakh perceived as restoring justice in Azerbaijan? Are there any prospects for a genuine dialogue between the conflicting parties? Can the EU play a role in supporting efforts towards a sustainable solution and preventing further violence? This panel of eminent experts will attempt to answer these and many other questions surrounding the deep-rooted conflict in this part of the European neighborhood.

By participating in this event, you agree that any photos or recordings taken that include footage of your person may be published or used in any other way by the organizers of the event.

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International Institute for Peace

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Marylia Hushcha
International Institute for Peace